# Entrance examinations - Physics

Physics entrance examination program is developed on basis of the exemplary program recommended by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation.

PHYSICS

Mechanics

Kinematics
Mechanical motion. Relativity of motion. Frame of reference. Material point. Trajectory. Distance and movement. Speed. Acceleration.
Uniform and uniformly accelerated linear motion. Free fall of bodies. Free fall acceleration. Equation for uniformly accelerated linear motion.
Curvilinear motion of a point on the example of circular motion at a constant speed.
Centripetal acceleration.

Fundamentals of dynamics
Inertia. Newton’s first law. Inertial frame of reference.
Bodies interaction. Mass. Impulse. Power. Newton’s second law. Principle of superposition. Galileo’s relativity principle.
Forces of nature. Gravity force. Law of universal gravitation. Body weight. Weightlessness. Earth orbital velocity. Elastic force. Hooke’s law. Friction force. Coefficient of friction.  Law of sliding friction.
Newton’s third law.
Torque. Equilibrium condition.

Conservation law in mechanics
Law of conservation of momentum. Rockets.
Mechanical work. Power. Kinetic, potential energy. Law of energy conversation in mechanics. Simple mechanisms. Coefficient of efficiency of mechanisms.

Mechanics of fluids
Pressure. Atmospheric pressure. Atmospheric pressure change with height. Pascal's law of fluid pressures. Barometers and manometers. Communicating vessels. Principle of a hydraulic press.
Archimedes’ principle for liquids and gases. Sailing conditions of bodies on a liquid surface.
Fluid flow in a pipe. Dependence of liquid pressure on the speed of its current.

Measurements
Measuring distances, time periods, power, volume, mass, atmospheric pressure.

Molecular physics. Thermodynamics
Fundamentals of kinetic molecular theory
Experimental grounds for principles of kinetic molecular theory.
Brownian motion. Diffusion. Molecular mass and size. Measurement of molecules speed. Stern’s experiment.
Amount of substance. Mole. Avogadro’s constant. Molecule interactions. Models of gases, liquids and solids.
Fundamentals of thermodynamics
Thermal balance. Temperature and its measuring. Absolute temperature scale. Internal energy. Quantity of heat. Thermal capacity. Work in thermodynamics. First law of thermodynamics. Isothermal, isochoric and isobaric processes. Adiabatic process.
Irreversibility of thermal processes. Second law of thermodynamics and its statistical interpretation. Energy conversion in heat engines. Coefficients of performance of heat engines.
Ideal gas
Relation between pressure and the average kinetic energy of the ideal gas molecules. Relation between temperature and the average kinetic energy of the gas particles.
Mendeleev's-Clapeyron equation. Absolute gas constant.
Liquids and solids
Evaporation and condensation. Saturated and unsaturated steams. Air humidity. Surface boiling.
Crystal and amorphous bodies. Energy transformation at change of state.
Measurements
Measurement of gas pressure, air humidity, temperature, density.

Fundamentals of electrodynamics
Electrostatics
Bodies electrization. Electric charge. Interaction between charged particles. Elementary electrical charge. Charge conservation law. Coulomb's law.
Electric field. Electric field intensity. Electric field of point charges. Potentiality of electric field. Potential difference. Principle of superposition.
Conductors in electric field. Electrical capacity. Condenser. Plane condenser capacity.
Dielectrics in electric field. Dielectric permittivity. Electric field energy of plane condenser.

Direct current
Current. Current intensity. Voltage.
Free electricity carriers in metals, liquids and gases. Conductor resistance. Ohm’s law for circuit section. Consecutive and parallel connection of conductors.
Electromotive force. Ohm’s law for complete circuit. Current work and capacity. Joule-Lenz's law
Semiconductors. Intrinsic and extrinsic conductivity of semiconductors, р-n junction.
Magnetic field. Electromagnetic induction
Magnets interaction. Current-carrying conductors interaction. Magnetic field. Magnetic field action on electric charges. Magnetic field induction. Ampere force. Lorentz force. Magnetic flux. Electric motor.
Electromagnetic induction. Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction. Lenz's law. Electric curl field. Self-induction. Inductance. Magnetic field energy.
Measurements
Measurement of current intensity, voltage, conductor resistance.

Oscillations and waves
Mechanical oscillations and waves
Harmonic oscillations. Amplitude, oscillation period and frequency. Free oscillations.
Simple pendulum. Oscillation frequency of simple pendulum.
Transformation of energy in simple harmonic motion. Constrained oscillations. Resonance. Notion of auto-oscillations.
Mechanical waves. Wave velocity. Wave length. Transverse and longitudinal waves. Harmonic wave equation.
Sound.
Electromagnetic oscillations and waves
Oscillating circuit. Free electromagnetic oscillations in the circuit. Transformation of energy in the oscillating circuit. Natural oscillation frequency in the circuit. Forced electric oscillations.
Alternating current. AC generator. RMS values of current and voltage. Active, capacitive and inductive impedance.
Resonance in electric circuit.
Transformer. Generation, transmission and consumption of electric power.
Maxwell’s theory. Electromagnetic waves. Velocity of electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic waves properties. Principles of radio communication. Electromagnetic wave spectrum.

Optics
Light as an electromagnetic wave. Rectilinear propagation, reflection and refraction of light. света. Ray. Laws of reflection and refraction of light. Refraction index. Total reflection. Critical angle for total reflection. Ray trace through a prism. Plane mirror imaging.
Converging and diverging lenses. Thin lens formula.
Lens imaging. Camera. Eye. Eyeglasses.
Light interference. Coherence. Light diffraction. Diffraction grid. Light polarization. Transverse light waves. Light dispersion.
Measurements
Measurement of the focal length of a converging lens, refraction index, optical wavelength.

Fundamentals of the special theory of relativity
Light speed invariance. Einstein’s principle of relativity. Space and time in the special theory of relativity. Relationship between mass and energy.

Quantum physics
Thermal radiation. Planck constant. Photo effect. Stoletov’s experiments. Einstein's photo-electric effect equation.
De Broglie hypothesis. Electron diffraction. Wave-particle duality.
Radioactivity. Alpha-, beta- и gamma-radiation. Methods of particle observation and detection in nuclear physics.
Rutherford's alpha particle scattering experiment. Planetary model of the atom. Bohr atom model. Spectrum. Luminescence.
Lasers.
Law of radioactive decay. Nucleon-nuclear model. Nucleus charge. Mass number of nucleus. Particle binding energy in a nucleus. Nuclear fission. Nuclear fusion. Nuclear reactions. Conservation of charge and mass number at nuclear reactions. Energy release at nuclear fission and fusion.
Nuclear energy uses. Dosimetry.
Elementary particles.
Fundamental interactions.

Methods of scientific knowledge and physical world view
Experiment and theory in the process of the world knowledge. Modeling of natural phenomena and objects.
Scientific hypothesis. Principles of physics and limits of their applicability. Importance of mathematics in the world.
Correspondence principle. Causality principle. Physical world view.