Entrance examinations – Social science

Social science entrance examination program is developed on basis of the exemplary program recommended by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation.
 

SOCIAL SCIENCE


Society


Society as a complex dynamic system. Human impact on the environment. Society and nature. Legal protection of nature. Society and culture. Casual and functional relations in society. Interconnection of major spheres of social life. Major social institutions. Social relations.
Objective and subjective factors of society development. Activity as a way of society’s existence. Stages of human history. Diversity of ways and forms of social development. Evolution and revolution. Revolution and reforms. Possibility of alternativeness of social development.
Culture and civilization. Civilization types. Modern civilizations. Scientific and technological revolution and its social consequences. Prospects of a post-industrial civilization.
Problem of social progress and its criteria. Progress inconsistency. Progress price. Problem of historical process meaning and trends.
Mankind as social community. Variety, interrelation and integrity of the modern world. Inconsistency of modern social development. Global problems of mankind. Human survival strategy under the conditions of aggravated global problems.


Man


Man as a product of biological, social and cultural evolution. Interrelation of spiritual and corporal, biological and social origins in Man. Consciousness. Sense. The conscious and unconscious mind.
Human being. Human needs: material and spiritual, real and false. Human abilities. Human activities, their variety. Creative human nature. Destination of a human being. Purpose and meaning of human life. Objective and subjective content of the meaning of life. Human life value.
Main social phenomena of human life. Work and labor activity. Game in human life. Dialogue and communication. Variety of types of communication. Communication functions.
Person as a subject of social life. Person’s socialization and education. Behaviour. Self-realization of a person. Self-control. Freedom and responsibility of a person.
General characteristics of interpersonal relationships. Conflict situations and ways of their resolution.
The Inner world of Man. Man’s outlook. Values. Main types of life strategies in modern society: strategy of wellbeing, success and self-realization. Problem of death in Man’s spiritual experience.


Knowledge


World knowledge. Sensual and rational knowledge. Intuition. Truth and error. Truth criteria. Absolute and relative truth.
Scientific knowledge. Knowledge and creative work. Knowledge and faith. Forms and methods of modern scientific knowledge.
Features of social knowledge. Facts, theories, estimates. Social sciences. Problem of social forecasting.
Human sciences, their system. Development of views on Man. Holistic comprehension of Man.
Variety of knowledge ways and human knowledge forms. Social and humanities knowledge. Self-knowledge.


Spiritual life of society


Culture and spiritual life. Spiritual culture. Forms and variety of culture: national, mass, elite cultures. Mass media. Modern trends of Russian spiritual life. Features of national cultures development in the Russian Federation.
Science as part of culture. Science and society. Science as knowledge system and a type of spiritual production. Features of modern science. Differentiation and integration of sciences. Scientific worldview, valuable and world outlook forms of knowledge. Increasing role of science within the scientific and technological revolution.
Essence of morals. Morality as a regulator of social behavior. Morality categories. The highest spiritual values. Truth, kindness and beauty. Moral ideal. Moral assessment of activity Moral choice.
Religion as a cultural phenomenon. Religion functions. Religious consciousness. Religious cult. Religious organizations. Religion and morals. Religion in the modern world. Freedom of worship and religions.
Art as a kind of spiritual production. Essence of art, its origin and main forms. Arts as aesthetic activities. Forms and main trends of art. Meaning of art for Man and mankind.
Education in a system of spiritual production. Education objectives and functions in the modern world. Basic elements of an educational system. Education as value. Self-education. Meaning of education for self-realization.


Economy


Economy: science of economics and economy, theory and practice. Needs and resources: problems of choice, economics in society’s life. Types of economic systems, their distinctive features, Ides of economic relations. Business cycle, its main phases. Economic growth.
Economic sense of property. Property forms and relations. Denationalization and privatization. Private land ownership and its economic meaning.
Economic activity. General characteristics of production and tertiary production sectors: structure, factors, types. Measuring instruments of economic activity. Producer economy. Entrepreneurship: essence, functions, types.
Market as a special institute organizing social and economic system of society. Variety of markets. Competition. Supply and demand. Exchange. Specialization. Russia within market relations.
Money, their function. Banks, inflation.
State and economy. Economic functions and objectives of the state. Economic policy. State budget. Public debt. Budgetary and tax and monetary regulation of economy. Taxes, their types and functions.
World economy. Russia in the international economic relations system. International division of labor and international trade. Economic cooperation and integration.
Consumer economy. Consumer rights, their protection. Standard of living. Living wage. Labor market. Employment and unemployment.
Economic culture. Economic freedom and social responsibility. Culture of production and consumption. Moral and legal basis for economic relations.
Economic interest, economic freedom and social responsibility of an economic agent.
 

Social relations


Social structure, its elements. Social relations and interactions, Social changes. Variety of social groups. Inequality and social stratification. Personal and social status. Social roles. Social mobility. Social processes in modern Russia. Notion of a small group. Group norms and sanctions. Social norms. Elements of social behavior. Deviant behaviour. Social control and self control.
Ethnic communities. International relations. Nationalism. International conflicts and ways of their overcoming. National policy.
Family as a social institute and a small group. Trends of family development in modern society. Family and demographic structure of society. Marriage. Legal bases of family and marriage. Legal status of a child.
Youth as a social group. Youth subculture. Youth problems in the conditions of social changes. Youth as a subject of social development. Social conflict and ways of its resolution. Extremism. Compromise. Tolerance. Social legislation. Social policy.
 

Politics


Policy, its role in society’s life. Political sphere structure.
Power, its origin and types. Political regime. Types of political regimes: totalitarian, authoritative, democratic.
Political system of society. State, its features, forms, functions. Government. Electoral systems. Political life of modern Russia.
Civil society, its main features. Constitutional state, its essence and basic principles. Supremacy of law. Local government. Correlation between constitutional state and civil society.
Political ideology and its structure. Functions of political ideology. Distinctions and interaction between political ideology and political psychology. Political ideology and political activity.
Political culture. Types of political culture. Functions of political culture. Ways and forms of a person’s political socialization.


Law


Law in a system of social norms. Role of law in human life, society, states.
Law system: primary branches, institutes, relations. Source of law.
Legal acts.
Public and private law. Legal relationships. Offenses. Legal responsibility and its types. Legal culture.
International human rights instruments. Universal declaration of human rights. Social and economic, political and personal rights and freedoms. System of judicial protection of human rights. International humanitarian law.
State law. Constitution in the hierarchy of normative acts.
The Constitution of the Russian Federation as for foundations of the constitutional system. Fixing in the Constitution the generally accepted international human rights standards.
Structure of the highest body of state authority in the Russian Federation.
Federation and its constituent entities.
Citizen, nationality and state. Participation of citizens in politics and administration. Political organizations. Pluralism. Legal culture.
Main features and meaning of legal responsibility. Features and types of offenses. Offense and crime.
Administrative law. State bodies. Administrative responsibility.
Civil law. Property right of entities and persons. Obligations in civil law. Labour law. Employment contract. Forms and types of compensation. Salaries and wages. Labour discipline. Labour disputes and order of their resolution.
Criminal law. Crime and punishment in criminal law. Liability for crimes against person. Criminal liability for other types of crimes. Law enforcement agencies.