Entrance examinations – Russian language

Russian language program for applicants

GENERAL KNOWLEDGE OF LANGUAGE
Language as a developing phenomenon. Functions of the Russian language in the modern world. Russian literary language. Russian dialects.
Two forms of existence of Russian: oral and written.

PHONETICS
Speech sounds and letters. Vowels and consonants. Breath consonants and sonants, hard and soft consonants. Designation of consonants softness in writing. Syllable, accent. Unaccented vowels and their spelling.

LEXIS AND PHRASEOLOGY
Lexical meaning of the word. Polysemantic and monosemantic words. :Proper and figurative sense. Synonyms. Antonyms. Homonyms. Dictionary richness of the Russian language. Common words. Professional words. Dialectal words. Loanwords. Archaisms. Neologisms. Concept of a set expression.

MORPHEMICS AND WORD-FORMATION
Constituent parts of words (morphemes). Flexion and word stem. Ending, suffix, root, prefix as constituent parts of words. Main methods of word-formation.

GRAMMAR. MORPHOLOGY

Notional parts of speech
Noun. Noun definition and grammatical features. Animate and inanimate nouns, proper and common nouns. Case endings of nouns of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd declension.

  • Case endings of nouns with a word stem ending in и.
  • Nouns ending in –мя.
  • Plural nouns Genitive case ending.
  • Spelling of noun suffixes: -ик, -ек; -чик, -щик; -иц, -ец; -инк, -енк; -ечк, -ичк; ending after suffixes -ышк, -ишк; -ушк, -юшк; -ищ.

Adjective. Adjective definition and grammatical features. Qualitative, relative, possessive adjectives. Long and short forms. Adjective declension. Degrees of comparison of adjectives. Adjective-to-noun conversion. Spelling of adjective case endings. Spelling of adjective suffixes: -ов, ев; -чив, -лив; -чат.
Numeral. Definition of numeral. Cardinal and ordinal numerals. Declension features of numerals. Spelling of numerals. Numeral пол- within a compound word.
Pronoun. Definition of pronouns. Types of pronouns. Pronoun declensions and spelling.
Verb. Verb definition and grammatical features. Infinitive. Transitive and intransitive verbs. Verb aspects. 1st and 2nd conjugation. Mood (indicative, conditional, imperative). Verb tenses. Person and number (in present and future tenses), gender and number (in past tense). Verb suffixes: -ова, -ева; -ыва, -ива- in infinitive form; in past tense in front of –л-.
Participle. Suffixes of present active participles –ущ, -ющ; -ащ, -ящ; suffixes of present passive participles: -ем, -им; vowel in front of the suffix –вш- of past active participles; гласные е, я or а in front of the suffix –нн- of past passive participles.
Adverbial participle.
Adverb. Definition of adverb. Vowels in adverb endings. Joined-up writing of adverbs. Separate writing of adverbs combinations. Adverbs зачем, затем, отчего, оттого, почему, поэтому, почему.

Functional parts of speech.
Preposition. Definition of preposition, its use in speech. Different parts of words as prepositions. Spelling of prepositions.
Conjunction. Definition of conjunction, its use in speech. Coordinating and subordinating conjunctions. Joined-up writing of conjunctions. Comparison of joined-up writing of conjunctions and separate writing of pronouns with a preposition or a particle, adverb with a conjunction, with a particle (conjunctions чтобы, тоже, также, притом, причем, зато, итак). Separate writing of conjunctions (то есть, потому что, так как, так что, для того чтобы и др.)
Particles. Definition of particle, its use in speech. Separate writing of particles.
Hyphen writing of particles. Spelling of НИ. Enhancing an affirmative sense in independent clauses using the particle НЕ, in dependent clauses (with concessive shade of meaning) – the particle НИ.
Interjection. Definition of interjection and punctuation used for interjections.

GRAMMAR. SYNTAX. PUNCTUATION.
Word-combination.
Simple sentence. Word connection in a sentence; agreement, government, adjunction. Types of simple sentences by statement purpose: declarative, interrogative, imperative. Exclamatory sentences. Parts of a sentence (subject, simple and compound predicate, object, attribute, adverbial modifier) and ways of their expression. Types of sentences by composition: personal, impersonal, indefinite-personal, denominative, complete and incomplete sentences.
Dash in a simple sentence: between a subject and predicate, in an incomplete sentence.
Homogeneous parts of a sentence. Homogeneous and non-homogeneous adjectives. Homogeneous adjectives not connected by conjunctions. Homogeneous adjectives, connected by nonrecurring conjunctions (copulative, disjunctive, conjunctive, adversative). Homogeneous adjectives connected by recurring conjunctions. Punctuation in sentences with homogeneous parts and a general word.
Detached subordinate parts of a sentence.
Modifiers. Extended coordinate modifier in front of and after the defined noun. Modifier combined with an indefinite pronoun. Attributive, indicative and possessive pronouns combined with a participial construction. Two single modifiers, one single modifier. Modifier with adverbial shade of meaning (of time, condition, cause, concession). Modifier in isolation from the defined word. Modifier attached to a personal pronoun. Incoordinate modifiers in the form of noun objective case, adjective comparative degree, infinitive.
Objects.
Adverbial modifiers. Adverbial modifiers in the form of a verbal adverb phrase, one or two adverbial participles. Adverbial modifiers in the form of nouns, adverbs. Specifying parts of a sentence. Comparative structures.
Conjunctive parts of a sentence.
Appositions, their isolation. Addresses.
Parenthetical words. Parenthetical words and word-combinations. Separation of parenthetical words and parts of a sentence. Comma between two parenthetical words. Parenthetical words within unattached phrases. Parenthetical words after a coordinating conjunction. Parenthesis.
Complex sentence.
Types of complex sentences. Compound sentences with conjunctions and punctuation marks in them.
Complex sentences with conjunctions and connective words. General notions of main types of subordinate clauses. Punctuation complex sentences (comma in the presence of complex subordinating conjunctions, comma between two conjunctions).
Complex sentences with several subordinate clauses (collateral subordination and consecutive subordination of subordinate clauses). Asyndetic complex sentences and punctuation in them (comma, semicolon, colon, dash). Complex sentences with conjunction and subordination. Punctuation in a complex-compound sentence.
Methods of delivering indirect speech. Punctuation in cases of direct and indirect speech. Punctuation in quoted speech: quotation and elision marks. Capital and lower-case letters in quotations.

ORTHOGRAPHY
Orphogram. Use of vowels И/Ы, А/Я, У/Ю, after sibilants and Ц. The partitive Ь and Ъ. Ъ after the Russian and foreign prefixes ending in consonants in front of Е,Ё,Ю,Я. The partitive Ь within a word (not after prefixes).
Spelling of vowels in the root: Verifiable unstressed vowels. Unverifiable unstressed vowels.
Alternating vowels:

  • бер-бир, тер-тир, пер-пир, дер-дир, мер-мир, стел-стил, жег-жиг, блест-блист, чет-чит, а(я)-им, а(я)-ин;
  • гар-гор, зар-зор, твар-твор, касс-кос, раст-рос, скач-скоч, клан-клон, лаг-лож, плав-плов, равн-ровн, мак-мок.

Spelling of prefixes: prefixes with the letters «а», «о», «е». Prefix с-. The prefixes ending in з-с. Prefixes пре- and при-. Conversion of И to Ы after prefixes.
Spelling of consonants in the root: voiced and unvoiced consonants, silent consonants, double consonants in the root:

  • between a prefix and root;
  • between the root and suffix;
  • in the roots and its derivatives.

Use of capital letters.
Vowels after sibilants and Ц:
1.    О after sibilants under stress:

  • in the root words;
  • in suffixes (of nouns, adjectives);
  • in endings (of nouns, adjectives);

2.    Ё after sibilants under stress:

  • in the root words;
  • in verb personal endings;
  • in suffixes (of nouns ending in –ёр, -ёвка; verbs ending in –ёвывать; past passive participles ending in –ённый, verbal adjectives ending in -ёный);
  • in a case-form of interrogative-relative pronouns (в чём, на чём, о чём).

Spelling of –Н- и –НН- in different parts of speech.
Spelling of case and gender endings. Spelling of personal verbs.
Joint-up and separate writing of НЕ with in different parts of speech.
Spelling of negative pronouns and adverbs.
Spelling of НЕ and НИ.
Spelling of compound words. The conjunctive о,е. Compound words without a connecting vowel. Joint-up  writing of compound words. сложных слов. Hyphen in compound words.

SPEECH
Text as a speech product. Semantic and composition text integrity. Means of sentence communication in a text. Division of speech styles by their purpose, function, selection of language means (colloquial, bookish, official, scientific, publicistic, belle-lettres). Functional-semantic types of speech (description narration, argumentation). Selection of language means in a text depending on a subject, purpose, recipient and communicative situation.

LANGUAGE NORMS
Orphoepic norms. Lexical norms. Grammatical norms (morphological norms). Grammatical norms (syntactical norms).

EXPRESSIVENESS OF THE RUSSIAN LANGUAGE
Expressive means of the Russian phonetics.
Expressive means of word-formation.
Expressive means of lexis and phraseology.
Expressive means of grammar.