Entrance examinations – History

History entrance examination program is developed on basis of the exemplary program recommended by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation.

 

HISTORY OF RUSSIA

 

National History from ancient times until end of the XV century.

 

Peoples and states on the territory of our country in ancient times. Ancient people on the territory of our country. City-states of the Northern Black Sea Coast. Nomad cattle breeding tribes. Turkic and Khazar Khaganates.
East Slavs in the VI—VIII cent: settlement, occupations, life, beliefs. Tribal relations. Relationships with neighbors. Statehood origins: internal and external factors. Cities. Formation of territorial communities.
Formation of the Old Russian State in the IX-X cent. Novgorod and Kiev. Norman theory. Old Russian cities. Crafts. Trade. First Russian princes. Prince and druzhina (retinue). Slavs, Finno-Ugric and Turkic peoples. Russia and Volga Bulgaria. Byzantium and Russia. Vladimir Svyatoslavich. Christianization of Kievan Rus. “Tale of Bygone Years”.
Rus’ at the end of X — first half of the XII cent. Formation of large land property. Categories of free and dependent population. Specifics of a communal system. Old Russian cities, crafts, trade. Yaroslav the Wise. "Russian Truth". Princely intestine wars. Vladimir Monomakh. Rus’ and the European states. Rus and Steppe.
Culture and life of the Old Rus’. Oral folk arts, writing, literature, art craft, architecture. Everyday life and customs of the Old Rus’ people.
Rus’ in XII - first half of the XIV cent. Political disunity of Rus’. Disunity reasons. Formation of political centers and three sociocultural development models of the Old Russian society and state — Novgorod the Great, Vladimiro-Suzdalsky principality, Galitsko-Volynsky principality. Development of economy, political institutes, cultures of the Rus lands during a period of appanage principalities. Disunity consequences.
Fight of Rus’ against aggressors in the XIII cent. Invasion of Batu, resistance to conquerors. Dependence of Rus’ on the Horde, its consequences. Isolation of the South Western Rus’. Fight of the North Western Rus’ against expansion from the West. Nevsky fight. Battle on the ice. Alexander Nevsky.
Rus’ in the middle of the XIII—XIV cent. Fight for political leadership in Rus’. Princely power and the Horde. Moscow princes and their policy. Ivan Kalita. Moscow as a center of integration for the Rus lands. Princely power and Church. Monasteries. Sergey Radonezhsky. Rus’ and Lithuania. The Golden Horde in XIII-XV of cent. Kulikovsky fight, its meaning. Dmitry Donskoy. Features of cultural development. Feofan Grek. Andrey Rublev.
Moscow State in the second half of the XV cent. Ivan III. End of the Rus dependence on the Horde. Completion of the Rus lands political integration. Ivan III. Change of the state government system. Boyar Duma. Prikaz. Patrimonial and manorial landowning and forms of peasants’ dependence of. 1497 Code of Law. Beginning of peasants’ enslaving.
State and church. Heresies. The Moscow Sate and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the XV—XVI cent., Turk and Tatar khanates in the XV—XVI cent.
Culture and life of the Moscow State in the second half of the XV cent. Folklore. Book industry. Chronicle writing. Literature. Political thought. Architecture. Frescos and icons. Everyday life.

 

National History in the XVI century.

 

The Moscow State in the XVI cent. Estate-representative monarchy. Ivan IV. Reforms of the 50th of the XVI cent. "Elected Rada". Assembly of the Land. Oprichnina. Autocracy formation.
Foreign policy of Ivan IV. Conquest of the Volga region and Western Siberia. Relations with the Crimean khanate. Livonian war. The Russian peoples in the XVI cent. Results of the foreign policy of Ivan the Terrible.
Culture and life in the XVI cent. Folklore. Education. Publishing beginning. Socio-political literature. Journalism development. Iconography. Dionysius. Life, customs "Domostroy".

 

Russia in the XVII—XVIII centuries.

 

Russia at the turn of the XVI—XVII cent.
Aggravation of social and political contradictions. Dynastic crisis. Destruction of appanage and patrimonial system. Boris Godunov. The Time of Troubles. Imposture phenomenon. Power and Cossacks. Ivan Bolotnikov's revolt. Power and zemshchina: opposition and cooperation. Social and national factors in the Distemper.
Liberation struggle against the Polish and Swedish interventionists. Kozma Minin and Dmitry Pozharsky’s militia. Beginning of the Romanovs’ dynasty.

 

Russia in the XVII cent.
Government. Beginning of absolutism elements formation. System of prikazes. Lots of class and representative institutes. Local government. Laws. Cathedral Code of 1649.
Economic and social development. Formation of Russia’s common economic space. Development of commodity-money relations. Crafts. Development of small-scale production. Emergence of manufactories and hired labor. Growth of cities and trade. Development of Siberia and Far East. Fairs. Final enslaving of peasants.
Russia’s people in the XVII cent. New territories within Russia. National structure of the country’s population. Political status of the incorporated territories of the Volga region, Ukraine, Siberia and Far East. Economy. Religion. Culture.
Autocracy and Church. Church after the Time of Troubles. Reform of Patriarch Nikon. Church split. Protopop Avvakum. Disagreements between the Church and tsar’s power. Popular movements. Causes and features of popular unrest. City revolts. Revolt under Stepan Razin's leadership. Protests of the Old Believers.
Russia’s foreign policy. Russia and Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Annexation of the Left-bank Ukraine and Kiev to Russia. Russian-Turkish relations. Crimean campaigns. The Russian pioneers in Siberia, Far East.
Culture and life in the XVII cent. Strengthening of culture secularism. Education. Literature. Architecture and painting. Theater. The prominent representatives of spiritual and art culture. Class life. Morals and manners.

 

Russia in the first half of the XVIII cent.
Reorganizations of Peter the Great. Change prerequisites. Reforms in economy, administrative and state sphere, army. Absolutism consolidation. Formation of bureaucratic apparatus. Opposition to reforms. Economic and social policy. Meaning of reorganizations.
Foreign policy of Peter the Great. Northern war (main battles, results). Petersburg as a capital. Prussian and Caspian campaigns. Formation of the Russian Empire. Russia and Europe in the first quarter of the XVIII cent.
Changes in culture and life. Science. Education system formation. Establishment of the Academy of Sciences. Literature and art. Architecture. Changes in life. Importance of Peter the Great’s cultural heritage.
Palace coups. Causes and essence of palace coups. Internal policy. Extension of the nobility privileges. Main trends and results of foreign policy.

 

Russia in the second half of the XVIII cent.
Domestic policy of Catherine the Great. “Enlightened absolutism". Reform projects. Law-making committee. The Golden Age of the Russian nobility. Charters to the nobility and cities. Provincial (regional) reform. Domestic policy tightening. Fight against freethinking. N.I.Novikov. A.N.Radishchev.
Social and economic development. Growth of manufactories and crafts. Entrepreneurship, commercial and industrial companies. Beginning of serfdom decay. Social policy. Serfdom toughening.
Peoples of the Russian Empire in the XVIII cent. Ethnic composition of the population. National policy. Economy. Religion. Culture. Morals and manners.
Yemelyan Pugachev's rebellion: causes, purposes, structure of participants, main stages, results, meaning.
Domestic policy of Pavel I. Change of succession order. Law-making committee of the Russian Empire. Peasantry policy. Debates about the personality and policy of Pavel I.
Foreign policy. Main trends. Russian-Turkish wars. Russian military art. A.V.Suvorov. F.F.Ushakov. Annexation of the Crimea, Northern Black Sea Coast. Georgiyevsky treatise. Russia’s participation in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth division Annexation of the Right-bank Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania, part of Latvia. Fight against the revolutionary France. Results and consequences of foreign policy.
Culture and life in the second half of the XVIII cent. Education system development. Formation of national science. Academic expeditions. M.B. Lomonosov. Russian educators. Architecture, sculpture, painting, music: styles and directions. Prominent artists, outstanding technicians and inventors. Palaces and estates. Changes in life and customs of the nobility, peasants and citizens.

 

Russia in the XIX cent.

 

Russia in the first quarter of the XIX cent.
Domestic policy of Alexander I. "Secret committee". Reform of the supreme governance bodies. M. M. Speransky. N. N. Novosiltsev. Polish constitution. Reactionary of the beginning of the 20th. Results of the domestic policy.
Foreign policy. International situation of Russia and main trends of foreign policy in the beginning of the century. Russian-French relations. The Treaties of Tilsit. Russia in the Caucasus. Polish issue. Wars with Turkey, Iran, Sweden. Annexation of Finland and Bessarabia.
Patriotic war of 1812. War causes. Plans and forces of the parties. Smolensk and Borodino battles. M.I.Kutuzov. Guerrilla movement. War results. Foreign campaign in 1812 - 1814. Role of Russia in the European and world politics.
Social and economic development. The decree about "free plowmen". Abolition of serfdom in the Baltic states. Economic crisis of 1812 - 1815. A.A.Arakcheev’s agrarian project. Industry and trade development.
Decembrist revolt. Southern and Northern societies: participants, programs, purposes, main events, meaning.
 

Russia in the second quarter of the XIX cent.
Domestic policy of Nikolay I. Consolidation of state apparatus. Centralization, bureaucratization of public administration. Social control tightening (police surveillance, censorship). Consolidation of a social base of autocracy. "Code of Laws" of the Russian Empire. Intensification of the struggle against revolutionary moods.
Social and economic development. Contradictions of economic development. Beginning of industrial revolution. New phenomena in industry and agriculture. Reform of state peasants governance. Trade. Cities. Results of social and economic development.
Social movement of the 30 – 50th years. Conservators. Liberals. Westerners and Slavophiles.
Russia’s peoples in the first half of the XIX cent. Ethnic relations. Polish issue. Polish revolt of 1830 - 1831. National policy of autocracy.
Caucasian war: Causes and main stages of war. Mouridism. Imamat. Shamil's movement. War results.
Foreign policy. Russia in the European and world politics of the second quarter of the XIX century. Wars with Iran and Turkey. Russia and Central Asia. Aggravation of the Eastern issue. Crimean war (participants, their purposes, main battles). Defense of Sevastopol. P. S. Nakhimov. V.A.Kornilov. War results.
Culture and life in the first half of the XIX cent. Education system development, its class character. Scientific discoveries. Russian pioneers and travelers. Main styles of art culture (romanticism, classicism, realism). Literature, Golden Age of the Russian poetry. Formation of the Russian national music school. Theater. Music, painting. Architecture. Life and customs.

 

Russia in the second half of the XIX cent.
Domestic policy of Alexander II. Reforms of the 60 – 70th years. Prerequisites and reform projects. Alexander II. Serfdom abolition. Preservation of serf remnants in the post-reform village. Judicial, territorial, city, military reforms. D.A.Milyutin. G. Loris-Melikov. Historical meaning and consequences of reforms.
Social movement of the 60 - the 70th years. Conservative, liberal, radical trend of public thought, their representatives. Territorial constitutionalism. Revolutionary populism: theory, organizations, leaders, tactics.
Domestic policy of Alexander III. Peasants policy. Labour legislation. Consolidation of the nobility’ positions. National and religious policy. K.P.Pobedonostsev.
Social and economic development in the post-reform period. Completion of industrial revolution, its consequences. Agriculture. Industry. Railway construction. Boom. Development of domestic market. Formation of bourgeois proletariat. Change of the nobility’s position. Peasantry stratification. Beginning of industrialization. N.H.Bunge. S.Yu. Vitte. "Golden decade" of the Russian industry. Impacts of social and economic development.
Social movement in the 80 – 90th years. "Modernizers" and traditionalists. Crisis of revolutionary populism. Liberal movement. Marxism dissemination in Russia. Conservative camp.
Foreign policy. Main trends of foreign policy. European policy, annexation of Central Asia. Far East policy. Sale of Alaska. Russian-Turkish war of the 1877-1878 years. Participation of Russia in military alliances. Results of foreign policy in the 60-90th years.
The Russian Empire’s peoples in the second half of the XIX cent. Ethnic issue and ways of its solution at the time of Alexander III. Alexander's III national policy. Position of Central Asia people.
Culture and life in the second half of the XIX cent. Achievements of the Russian scientists, their contribution to world science and technology. Education development. Publishing expansion. Culture democratization. Trends in literature and art. Realistic art (literature, theater, painting). Art crafts. Russian cultural workers. Russian patrons. Cultural achievements of the empire’s peoples. Contribution of the Russian culture of the XIX century to world culture. Population growth. Change of cities images. Development of communication and city transport. Changes in life and customs of citizens and peasants.

 

Russia in the XX century.

 

Russia in the beginning of the XX cent. (1900—1916)
Social and economic development at the beginning of the XX cent. Industrialization continuation. First monopolies. Economic crisis and its consequences. Russian entrepreneurs. Role of foreign capital. Specifics of Russia’s agrarian system. Landowner estate. Community. Contradictions of social and economic development.
Domestic policy of Nikolay II at the turn of the century. Autocracy at the beginning of the century. Idea of national representation in public consciousness and domestic policy. V.K.Pleve. P.D.Svyatopolk-Mirsky.
Foreign policy of Russia at the end of XIX —beginning of the XX cent. Russo-Japanese war. Russia’s initiatives of general disarmament. Far East policy. Russo-Japanese war: causes, main battles, results. Rapprochement of Russia and England. Aggravation of the Russian-German relations. Increased threat of world war.
Social movement at the turn of the century. Ideas of conservatism, liberalism, socialism, nationalism in public life. Genesis of political parties. Features of the Russian multi-party system.
Revolution of 1905 - 1907:  causes, character, driving forces, main stages and events.  Manifesto of October 17th, 1905. Armed revolt in Moscow. Major laws of the Russian Empire in 1906. Duma monarchy. Revolution results.
P.A.Stolypin's reforms. Evolution of political system. Agrarian reform: basic provisions, realization course, results. Reform projects in the field of religious and national policy, local government, education system, improvement of workers’ life. Policy in the field of cooperation. Boom. Reconstruction of agrarian relations.
Culture at the beginning of the XX century. Development of natural and social sciences. Art styles and trends. Silver age of the Russian poetry. Russian vanguard. Patrons. Russian culture of the beginning of the XX century as a component of world culture. Russia in the World War I. Role of the Eastern front in the war. War and Russian society. Regime crisis.

 

Russia in the 1917—1920 years.
February revolution. Causes, character, driving forces, features of February revolution. Fall of the monarchy. Diarchy. Provisional government, its domestic and foreign policy. Soviets.
Russia in February - October, 1917. Main political parties (cadets, socialist-revolutionaries, Bolsheviks, Mensheviks) in 1917. Power crises. Speech of General Kornilov. October revolt in Petrograd. II All-Russian Congress of Soviets, its decrees. Government establishment led by V.I.Lenin.
Establishment of the Soviet power in the country. Establishment of the Soviet state. Economic and social policy of the new power. Nationalization of banks, industries, lands. Convocation and dissolution of the Constituent Assembly. Exit of the Soviet Russia from world war. Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. One-party system establishment.
Civil war: essence, preconditions, participants, stages, main fronts. "The Red" and “The White". "Military communism": ideology, policy, economy. Red and white terror. Peasantry situation. "The Green". Intervention. National factor in war. The reasons and the price of the Bolsheviks’ victory in the war. War results. Consequences of the Civil war. Russian emigration.
 

Soviet Russia, USSR in the 1920—1930s years
Economic and political crisis of the beginning of the 20s: sources, essence, consequences. Peasants’ revolts. Kronstadt rebellion. Hunger of 1921.
New Economic Policy: essence, actions, contradictions, results.
Formation of the USSR. National policy in the 20 – 30s. Debates of party leaders about principles of the union state formation. Policy of economic and cultural leveling of the union republics. Ethnic and sociocultural changes. Inter-ethnic relations. Contradictions of the Soviet nationalities policy.
Foreign policy of the Soviet state in the 1920s:  from the concept of "world revolution" to the concept of socialist construction in one country. Realization of state interests by country leaders. Breaking international isolation.
Political life in the 1920 – 1930s. Aggravation of inner-party struggles. V.I.Lenin's death. Power concentration in I.V. Stalin's hands. Formation of totalitarian system. Mass repressions. GULAG. Political processes of the 1930s. Constitution of 1936.
Socialist industrialization: preconditions, accumulation sources, method, rates. Complete nationalization of the industry. Five-year plans. Labor enthusiasm of masses. Results and price of industrialization..
Policy of continuous collectivization of agriculture, its economic and social consequences. Dekulakization. Establishment of the kolkhoz system. Hunger of 1932 — 1933: causes and scale. Complete nationalization of economy.
Culture policy. Communist ideology propagation. Literacy elimination. Development of general and professional education. Situation of science, literature, art: achievements, difficulties, contradictions. Ideological bans. Outstanding men of national science and culture of the 20 – 30s.
International relations and foreign policy of the USSR in the 1930s. Entry of the USSR into the League of Nations, fight for creation of collective security system. Soviet-German agreements of 1939, their consequences. Change of the Soviet state foreign policy in 1939. The beginning of the World War II. Annexation of new territories to the USSR in 1939 - 1940. Soviet-Finnish War, its consequences.
War periods, main fronts. Reasons for initial Soviet defeats. Major battles, their meaning (battle of Moscow, Stalingrad, Kursk, Belarusian, Berlin operations, etc.). National and patriotic upsurge. Mass heroism at the front and in the rear. Commanders and war heroes. G.K.Zhukov. K.K.Rokossovsky. A.M. Vasilevsky. I.S. Konev.
USSR and Anti-Hitler coalition.
Nazi «new order» on occupied territory, extermination. Fight in the enemy’s rear; guerilla movement.
Soviet home front in the war years. Defense economy. Labour heroism of people.
Features of national policy in the war years. Deportation of a number of peoples.
Results and lessons of the Great Patriotic War. The Soviet people’s greatness and victory price.

 

USSR from the mid 1940s until the mid 1980s
USSR in system of the post-war international relations. «Cold war», its causes and consequences. Formation of military-political blocks. Bipolar world order. Foreign policy of the USSR in the 1945s - beginning of the 1950s. USSR and the world communistic movement. War in Korea and the Soviet government position.
Postwar economic reconstruction. Losses of the USSR in the war. Economic debates. Industry reconstruction and development. Agriculture difficulties and problems. People’s life and experience.
Political development of the USSR in 1945 - 1952. Reorganization of power structures.  Ideological campaigns of the second half of the 1940s. New wave of repressions.
USSR in the mid 50s - mid 60s. Race for power after I.V. Stalin's death. XX congress of CPSU, its meaning. "Thaw", its influence on a spiritual atmosphere of society. The Soviet science in the era of scientific and technical revolution. Beginning of space exploration. Educational reform. Contradictions of cultural policy. N. S. Khrushchev’s activity.
Foreign policy of the USSR in the mid 50s — mid 1960s: policy of peaceful co-existence; relations with the "eastern" and "western" blocks, "the third world" countries. The USSR and Hungarian events of 1956. Berlin crisis of 1961. Caribbean Crisis.  Results of foreign policy.
USSR in the mid 60s — mid 1980s. Conservative turn in the second half of 60s. L.I.Brezhnev. Consolidation of the party and state nomenclature. Economic reforms of 1965: contents, realization, closure reasons. Crisis rise in economy and social sphere, policy and ideology. Science achievements and problems. Destinies of scientific and creative intellectuals. Dissident movement. Ideology and culture. Constitution of 1977. Crisis of totalitarian system.
Foreign policy. Achievement of strategic parity with the USA, its price. Turn to relaxation of tensions in the 1970s. Helsinki agreements. Introduction of the Soviet troops to Afghanistan, its consequences.

 

USSR in the mid 1980s – early 1990s.
Perestroika in the USSR. M. S. Gorbachev. Attempts of the system renovation. Publicity. Multi-party system revival. New foreign policy. Withdrawal of troops from Afghanistan. Disintegration of the "eastern" block.
Crisis situation in economy. Aggravation of ethnic contradictions. Declaration of the state sovereignty by the Soviet republics.
August events of 1991. CPSU dissolution. Collapse of the USSR. Formation of the CIS.
Russia in the 1990s. Formation of the sovereign Russian state. B. N. Yeltsin. Transition to market economy. Contradictions and social consequences of reforms.
Events of October, 1993. Constitution of 1993. Breaking the Soviet system.
National regional policy. Federal agreement. War in Chechnya, its consequences, relations between the center and regions.  Education, science and culture in the market conditions.
Foreign policy of the Russian state. Russia and CIS. Russia and world community.

 

Russian Federation in 1999 – 2008.
Early resignation of the president of the Russian Federation B. N. Yeltsin in December, 1999. V. V. Putin’s election as the president of the Russian Federation in March, 2000.
Foreign policy of Russia. Russia’s protection of the Russian-speaking population’s rights in the former Soviet republics.
Culture, science, education. Revival of the population’s religiousness.
Food vulnerability of Russia. Concept of national security of Russia.
National projects. December, 2007: elections of the State Duma of the 5th convocation. March, 2008: election of the president of the Russian Federation.