Entrance examinations – Biology

 

Biology entrance examination program is developed on basis of the exemplary program recommended by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation.

 

BIOLOGY

 

General biology

 

Biology as a science of life.
Importance of biological science for agriculture, industry, medicine, hygiene, environmental protection. Live systems: cell, organism, specie, biocenosis, biosphere, their evolution. Features of live systems: energy metabolism, integrity, interrelation of structure and functions, connection with environment, autoregulation.
Contribution of biological science to formation of the scientific worldview, general personal culture of the personality.
General biological regularities. Levels of biological organization: molecular, cellular, organismal, population and specific, holocoenotic, biospheric.

 

Biological systems

 

Cell as a biological system. Cell theory. Methods for studying cells. Cell as a structural and functional unit of life. Chemical composition of cells, their similarity in different organisms as a basis for biological integrity. Inorganic substances: water, mineral salts. Structural features of organic compounds: carbohydrates, lipids, nucleinic acids, ATP in connection with carried out functions. Enzymes, their role in a cell.
Structure and functions of cell parts and organoids, their interrelation as a basis of cell integrity.
Variety of cells. Viruses, precellular form, pathogenic agents. Prevention of HIV infection and AIDS disease.
Cellular metabolism. Energy exchange. Transformation of energy in a cell. Meaning of ATP. Anabolism. Protein biosynthesis. Gen. Genetic code. Matrix nature of biosynthesis reactions. Photosynthesis. Chemosynthesis. Interrelation of anabolism and metabolism.

 

Reproduction and individual development of organisms. Cell as a genetic unit of life. Somatic and gametal cells. Chromosomes: autosomes and gametes. Homologous and nonhomologous chromosomes. Meaning of the constancy of the chromosome number and form. Preparation for cell division. DNA reduplication as a basis of chromosome doubling. Mitosis, its meaning. Germ cells development. Meiosis. Specialization of cells, formation of tissues.
Self-reproduction as the major feature of life. Reproduction: sexual and asexual. Fertilization, its meaning.
Ontogenesis. Embryonic and post-embryonic development: direct and indirect.
Embryogeny (on the example of animals). Damaging effect of alcohol and nicotine on human physical development

 

Organism as a biological system

 

Variety of organisms: monocelled and multicellular, autotrophic and heterotrophic, prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Structural elements of an organism: cells, tissues, organs, organ systems.


Plants and environmentPlant as an integral organism. Interrelations of cells, tissues and organs. Main processes of vital activity of a vegetable organism. Vegetable community. Ecological factors of animate and inanimate nature, connected with human activities. Interrelation of plants and factors of animate and inanimate nature on the example of forest, meadow and other plants. Plant adaptation to joint life in the forest, meadow, etc. Importance of plants in nature and human life.
Impact of human activities on plants. Protection of plants, protection of their environment, nature conservation laws.

Plant divisions. General characteristics. Algae. Structure and activity of monocelled and multicellular algaes.
Role of algaes in nature and national economy, their protection.
Mosses. Structure and reproduction (on the example of local species). Peat formation, its meaning. Habitat-forming and resource importance of mosses in sterrhium.
Ferns. Structure and reproduction, role in nature and human life. Horsetails. Club mosses.
Gymnosperms. Structure and reproduction (on the example of a pine, fir-tree and others conifers). Distribution of the conifers, their importance in nature, national economy. Regulation of the conifers number. Coniferous forest restoration.
Angiosperms (flowering). Structure and activity features of the angiosperms as the most highly organized plant group, their domination on Earth. Variety of flowering plants.
Class: Dicotyledons. Families: crucifers (cabbage), rosales. Fabales, solonales, asterales, malvales, chenopodiales, vitales (depending on local conditions).
Class: Monocotyledons. Families: liliales, poales.
Distinct features of the listed families plants, their biological features, national economic significance.
Impact of human activity on specific variety of flowering plants. Preservation and restoration of number of rare species of plants.


Agricultural plantsThe major agricultural plants (grain, fruit and berry, vegetable, olive, technical, etc.), biological basis and technologies of their cultivation.
Origin of cultivated plants. Notion of a cultivar. Scientific achievements in nurturing new plant varieties.

 

Flora evolution. Variety of plants and their origin. Evidence for plant evolutionary history.
Main stages in flora evolution: emergence of monocelled and multicellular algaes; emergence of photosynthesis; plants coming out onto the land (psilophytes, mosses, ferns, gymnosperms, angiosperms). Plants sophistication in the course of flora evolution. Phylogenetic communications in flora.
Domination of the angiosperms at present, their variety and distribution on earth. Impact of human economic activity on flora. Preservation of biological diversity of plants.


Bacteria. Structure and activity of bacteria, their reproduction. Distribution in the air, soil, water, living organisms. Role in nature, industry, medicine, agriculture. Pathogenic bacteria and their control.


Fungi. Lichens. General characteristics of fungi. Fungi’s role in nature and economy. Fungus and lichen symbiosis. Nutrition. Lichens’ role in nature.


Animals and environment. Fauna variety. Main distinctions between animals and plants, their similarities. Animal systematics.


Mono-cell organisms as the most primitive and oldest animalsOrdinary amoeba. Features of cell structure of a mono-cell organism. Variety of monocelled animals, their importance in nature, human life. General characteristics.


Multicellular animals. General characteristics of types. Coelenterates. Flatworms. Roundworms. Annelids. Mollusks.


Type Arthropods. General characteristics of classes. Crustaceans. Arachnids (spiders and pincers). Insects. Main groups of insects. Lepidopterans. Dipterans. Hymenopterans.
Variety of insects, their role in nature; practical and esthetical importance. Biological way of insect pest control and its role in crop preservation. Protection of insects.
Type Chordates. Lancelet. General characteristics of classes. Fishes. Amphibians. Reptiles. Birds. Mammals. Groups of the placentary. General characteristics of the type.
Importance of mammals in nature and human life. Variety preservation by means of regulation of their number, protection of ecosystems as habitats of mammals.
Live-stock animals of the class of mammals. Cattle, sheep, pigs, horses. Origin of pets. Keeping, feeding, breeding.
Fauna evolution. Evidence of fauna evolution: comparative and anatomic, embryological, paleontological.
Origin of mono-cell organisms. Origin of multicellular organisms. Sophistication of vertebrate animals’ structure and activity in the course of fauna evolution. Relationship between humans and animals.

 

Human being and his health

 

General overview of the human body. Importance of knowledge about its structure, activity and hygiene for health protection.


Organs and organ systems
Locomotor system. Importance of locomotor system. First aid at bruises, sprains, dislocations, fractures.
Muscles, their function. Major muscles of the human body.
Blood and blood circulation. Immunity. I.I.Mechnikov's role in formation of the doctrine about immunity. Infectious diseases and their control. Preventive inoculations. Prevention of HIV infection and AIDS disease. Blood types. Blood transfusion. Donorship.
Blood circulation organs. Heart and vessels (arteries, capillaries, veins).
Prevention of cardiovascular diseases. First aid at bleedings. Damaging effect of smoking and alcohol on heart and vessels.
Breathing. Importance of breathing. Airborne infectious diseases, prevention of airborne infections, hygienic regime during an illness. Hygiene of respiratory organs. Damaging effect of smoking on an organism.
Digestion. Importance of digestion. Regulation of digestive system processes. Hygienic conditions of normal digestion. Prevention of helminthic and gastrointestinal diseases, food poisonings, first pre-medical aid. Impact of smoking and alcohol on digestion.
Metabolism. General characteristics. Impact of alcohol and toxic substances, drugs on metabolism. Vitamins. Their role in metabolism. Major hypovitaminosis. Hypervitaminosis.
Ways of vitamins preservation in foodstuff. Food standards. Balanced diet.
Excretion. Urinary system organs, their functions, disease prevention.
Skin. Skin structure and functions. Skin role in thermoregulation. Organism hardening. Hygiene of skin, hygienic requirements to clothes and footwear. Prevention and first aid at thermal and solar blows, burns, frostbites.
Internal secretion glands. Importance of internal secretion glands for growth, development, function regulation of an organism. Hormones. Role of sexual glands in organism development. Puberty. Hygiene of a young man and girl.
Nervous system. Sense organs. The highest nervous activity. Importance of nervous system in regulation and coherence of human organism functions and interrelation of an organism with environment. Features of the human highest nervous activity. Speech and thought. Sense organs. Consciousness as a brain function. Social conditionality of a human behaviour.
I.M.Sechenov and I.P.Pavlov’s role in formation of the doctrine about the highest nervous activity.
Dream, its meaning and hygiene. Change of working capacity in a labour process. Hygiene of brainwork. Damaging effect of nicotine, alcohol and drugs on nervous system.

 

Fundamentals of genetics

 

Genetics as a science of heredity and variability of organisms. Main methods of genetics. Mono - and dihybrid crossing. Offspring analysis.
Heredity and variability as the organism’s properties. Research methods of heredity and variability of plants, animals and man.
The law of inheritance derived by G. Mendel. Dominant and recessive traits. Allelic genes. Phenotype and genotype. Homozygote and heterozygote. Uniformity of the first generation.
Intermediate nature of inheritance. Law of segregation. Statistical property of the segregation phenomenon. Cytological basis of uniformity of the first generation and segregation in the second generation. Law of independent inheritance and its cytological basis.
The law of the linked inheritance by T.Morgan, its cytological basis. Complete and partial linkage. Role of chromosomal crossover.
Genotype as a complete historically developed system. Genetics of sex. Chromosomal theory of inheritance. Importance of genetics for medicine and health care. Damaging effect of nicotine, alcohol and drugs on human heredity.
Role of genotype and environmental conditions in phenotype formation. Modification variability. Norm of reaction. Static regularities of modification variability.
Mutations, their causes. The law of homologous series in hereditary variability formulated by N.I.Vavilov. Mutation experiments. Mutations as a material for artifcal and natural selection.
Protection measures against mutagens. Importance of genetics for prevention of human hereditary diseases.

 

Fundamentals of selection

 

Genetics as a theoretical basis for selection. N.I.Vavilov’s contribution to selection development: the doctrine about centers of origin and variety of cultivated plants. Selection methods: hybridization, artificial selection, mutagenesis, polyploidy, heterosis.
Selection of plants. Self-pollination of cross pollinated plants. Heterosis. Polyploidy and remote hybridization.
Selection of animals. Types of crossing and breeding methods. Method of the analysis of hereditary economically valuable features among food-producing animals. Remote hybridization of domestic animals.
Biotechnology: microbiological synthesis, genetic and cell engineering, their importance for development of national economy, nature conservation.

 

Superorganismal Systems

 

Population and specie. Specie and its criteria. Population as a structural unit of a specie. Number of individuals, age and sexual structure, size of populations, forms of coexistence of individuals.
Evidence of wildlife evolution. C.Darwin's doctrine about evolution. Evolution factors. Natural selection as a primary factor of evolution. Emergence of adaptations. Relative character of fitness. Moving and stabilizing selection.
Artificial selection and hereditary variability as a basis of breeding of domestic animals variety and cultivars species. Notion of a cultivar and breed.
Microevolution. Speciation. Modern views. Biological progress and regress. Correlation of various evolution trends. Main regularities of evolution. Results of evolution.
Origin of life on Earth. Evolution of the organic world in Archeozoic, Proterozoic, Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cainozoic era. Major aromorphosis in plants and animals evolution. Human being evolution. Evidence of the human being origins from the animals. Driving forces of anthropogenesis: social and biological factors. Stages of the human being evolution. Evidence of unity of human races. Criticism of racism and social Darwinism.

 

EcosystemsEcosystem and biogeocenosis. Ecosystem structure: specific, spatial. Dominant and small species, their role in ecosystem.
Notion of “Habitat”. Ecological factors. Law of optimum. Abiotic factors, fitness of organisms to them. Biological rhythms. Photoperiodism. Biotic factors. Intraspecies and interspecies relations: predatoriness, competition, parasitism, symbiosis. Anthropogenous factors.
Variety of populations in ecosystem, relations between them: genetic, trophic. Producers, reducers and consumers. Food chains and networks. Ecosystems. Circulation of substances and transformation of energy in them. Rules of an ecological pyramid.
Autoregulation as a basis of ecosystems stability. Fluctuations of population size in ecosystems. Changes in ecosystems. Causes of ecosystems change: external (natural and anthropogenous) and internal.
Agroecosystems, their variety, differences from natural ecosystems. Preservation of biological diversity as basis of ecosystems sustainable development.
Biosphere as a global ecosystem. V.I.Vernadsky's contribution to the development of the doctrine about biosphere. Role of live substance in biosphere. Features of biomass distribution. Biological circulation. Biogene migration of atoms. Biosphere evolution. Global changes in biosphere under the influence of human activities. Problem of biosphere sustainable development.

 

RECOMMENDED LITERATURE REFERENCES

 

School textbooks:

Андреева Н.Д. Общая биология. Учебник для общеобразовательных учреждений. 10-11 классы. – М.: Мнемозина, 2008.
Каменский А. А., Криксунов Е. А., Пасечник В. В. Общая биология. Учебник для общеобразовательных учреждений. 10-11 классы. – М.: Дрофа, 2006.
Колесов Д. В., Маш Р. Д., Беляев И. Н. Биология. Человек. Учебник. 8 класс. – М.: Дрофа, 2008. Константинов В.М., Бабенко В.Г., Крылова В.П. Биология. Животные. 7 кл. – М.: Вентана-Граф, 2008.
Латюшин В. В., Шапкин В. А. Биология. Животные. 7 кл. – М.: Дрофа, 2008.
Пасечник В. В. Биология. Бактерии. Грибы. Растения. 6 класс. – М.: Дрофа, 2008.
Сонин Н. И., Сапин М. Р. Биология. Человек. Учебник. 8 класс. – М.: Дрофа, 2008.
Трайтак Д. И., Суматохин С.В. Биология. Животные. 7 кл. – М.: Мнемозина, 2006.

 

Workbooks:
Билич Г. Л. Биология для поступающих в ВУЗы. – М.: Оникс, 2007.
Лемеза Н. Биология для поступающих в ВУЗы. – М.: Юнипресс, 2006.
Мамонтов С. Г. Биология. Пособие для поступающих в ВУЗы. – М.: Дрофа, 2001.
Чепурнова Н.Е. Биология. Руководство для поступающих в вузы.: Учебное пособие / Чепурнова Н.Е., Соколова Н.А.; Под редакцией Чепурнова С.А. – М.: УНЦ ДО, ФИЗМАТЛИТ, 2002.
Шустанова Т.А.Репетитор по биологии для поступающих в ВУЗы. – М.: Феникс, 2004.